What is an Operating System

Operating system is also called system software. By short name, Most people also call it OS. It is also known as the heart of the computer. Operating system is a system software, which acts as an interface between the user and the computer hardware.

Let me explain this shortly, whenever you run the computer, then only this OS gives you the means to use the computer. Just like you listen to a song, open a word document, write something on the keyboard, and copy, paste file in the computer etc. You can never do all this without an operating system.

What is the Operating System ?

OS is such a software with the help of which you run your computer. Therefore, whenever you buy a new computer, you first get Windows loaded in it from the shopkeeper and after that you take the computer to your home. Otherwise, without an operating system, you can never even turn on your computer.

It is also a question that why is it called System Software. If you want to run User Software means Application llike MS office, Photoshop etc. in Computer, then it can never run without OS.

This OS helps in using Computer Hardware well. The OS mainly does the same thing like takes some input from the keyboard, processes the instruction, and sends the output to your computer screen.

You see exactly this OS only when you turn on the computer and when you turn off the pc. Inside a computer like Game, MS word, Adobe Reader, VLC Media Player, Photoshop and many other software, to run them, we need a program or big software which we call Operating System.

The name of the commonly used OS in mobile is Android, everyone knows about it. You must have come to know what the Operating System is, so let’s know about some of its functions.

Some Examples of Operating Systems :

Different operating systems are used for different tasks. Here I have shared the list of popular operating system, which most people like to use. All these examples of very big operating systems. Although there are not many different in them, but most people know them by these names.

  • Microsoft Windows
  • Google’s Android OS
  • Apple iOS
  • Apple macOS
  • Linux Operating System

Functions of OS :

The computer does a lot of work, but first of all when you turn on the pc, then the operating system is first loaded into the main memory means RAM and after that, it allocates all the hardware from which user software is needed. Below are the different functions of the OS, know about them in more detail.

#1 Memory Management

Memory Management means to manage primary and secondary memory. Main memory RAM is a very large array of Bytes. There are many small slots in memory where you can keep some data and there is an address of each branch. Basically, Main memory is the fastest memory which is used by CPU Direct. Because all the programs that the CPU runs are in the main memory only.

What part of Main Memory will be used, which will not, how much will be there, how much will not be.
In multiprocessing, the OS decides which process will be given memory and to whom how much will be given.
When the process asks for memory, it gives it to the memory OS (Process means a task or a small task which is done inside the computer).
When the process finishes its work, the OS takes back its memory

#2 Processor Management

When it comes to multi programming environment, the OS decides which process will get the process and who will not get it and for how long it goes. This process is called Process Scheduling. Operating System does all this work.

The Operating System also sees that the Processor is empty or is doing some work, or is free and the Processor has finished its work or not. If you want, you can see in Task Manager how many tasks are going on and how many are not. The program that does all this work, its name is Traffic Controller.
The CPU allocates the process. When the work of one process is over, then it engages the processor in other work, and frees the processor when nothing is working.

#3 Device Management

Drivers are used in your computer, you must know that such as Sound Driver, Bluetooth Driver, Graphics Driver, they help to run different Input / Output Device. But these Drivers are run by OS. So let’s get what else this OS does.

Tracks all computer devices and the name of the program that does this task is I/O Controller.
Just like different processes need devices to perform some task, so the OS also does the work of device allocate. Let’s take an example, if a process has to do some task like playing video, not taking out print, then both these tasks will be done with the help of output device monitor, printer. So when both these devices have to be given to the process OS does this work.

When the work of the method is over, then it deallocate the device back.

#4 File Management

A lot of directories are kept organized in one file. Because with this we will easily find the info. So let’s know what’s the work of OS in File Management. Keeps information, location and standing organized. All this sees the filing system. Who will get which resource? Resource De-allocate is to be done.

#5 Security

When you activate your computer, it asks you for that password, this suggests that the OS prevents your system from unauthenticated access. This keeps your computer safe. And you can not open some programs without a password.

#6 System Performance

It sees the performance of the pc and improves the system. The OS keeps records of how long it takes to deliver a service.

#7 Reporting Error

If plenty of errors are coming within the system, then the OS detects them and recovers them.

#8 Creating synergy between the software and the user

Assigns the task to the compiler, interpreter and assembler. Connects different software with the user, so the user uses the software well. Provides communication between User and System. The package is stored within the BIOS. Everything else also makes the appliance user-friendly.

Features of Operating System :

  • An software system may be a collection of the many programs, which runs other programs.
  • It controls all the input/output devices.
  • The software is to blame for running all the appliance software.
  • The work of Process Scheduling means allocating and deallocating the method.
  • Informs you about the errors and threats happening within the system.
  • Establishes a decent synergy between User and Computer Programs.

By now you all must have come to understand what the software package does (Function of software package in Hindi), so allow us to now know the way many sorts of OS are there.

Types of Operating System :

Technology is changing day by day and everything is changing with it, therefore the use of package is increasing in every field like railways, research, satellite, industry, so know the way many varieties of operating systems are there.

  1. Batch Operating System
  2.  Simple Batch Operating System
  3.  Multiprogramming Batch Operating System
  4.  Network Operating System
  5.  Multiprocessor Operating System
  6.  Distributed Operating System
  7. Time-Sharing Operating System
  8.  Real-Time Operating System

1} Batch Operating System

Batch processing operating systems were brought in just to beat the issues of the sooner times. If we speak about the sooner systems, then it wont to take more setup time. Wherein this much founded time has been reduced in execution systems where jobs are processed in batches. At the identical time, this kind of package is termed execution software in Hindi. In this, any similar jobs are submitted to the CPU for processing and that they are run simultaneously. The main function of instruction execution System is that they execute the roles automatically in batch. the foremost important thing that does this work is ‘Batch Monitor’ which is found within the low-end of the most memory.

A) Simple Batch System

This is the oldest system within which there was no direct interaction between the user and also the computer. during this system, the user had to bring the task or job to a storage unit to process it and submit it to the pc operator. In this, all the roles got to the pc in a very batch or line. Within some days or within some months, that job was processed and an output device had an output store. this method wont to process jobs in batch, hence its name was also called batch mode OS.

B) Multi-Programming Batch Systems

In this OS, employment was picked up from memory and executed. The OS which keeps on processing one job, if the work needs I/O at the identical time, then the OS gives the second job to the CPU and I/O to the primary one, thanks to this the CPU is often busy. The number of jobs within the memory are always but the quantity of jobs within the disk. If plenty of jobs remain within the line, then the software system decides which job are going to be processed first. CPU never remains idle during this OS. Time Sharing system is additionally part of Multiprogramming system. reaction time is extremely less in sharing System but CPU usage is more in Multi Programming.

Disadvantages
1) There is no direct interaction between User and Computer.
2) The job that comes first is the job first, so the user had to wait longer.

2} Network Operating System

Its abbreviation is NOS, the total type of NOS is “Network Operating System”. This network OS provides its services to computers that are connected to a network. If they’re given examples, then they include shared file access, shared applications, and printing capabilities. NOS may be a style of software that permits multiple computers to speak simultaneously, to share files and also with other hardware devices. The earlier Microsoft Windows and Apple operating systems weren’t designed for one computer usage and network usage. But as computer networks started growing slowly and their use also increased, and such operating systems also started developing. There are mainly two sorts of a NOS (Network Operating System) :- Peer-to-peer (P2P) OS, which is installed in every computer. the opposite could be a client-server model, within which one machine features a server and also the other has client software installed.

Types of Network Operating System

Talking about the categories of Network OS, then they’re mainly of two basic types, peer-to-peer NOS and client/server NOS:

1. Peer-to-peer network operating systems allow users to share network resources that are saved in a very common, accessible network location. during this architecture, all devices are treated equally in step with functionality. Peer-to-peer works best on small to medium LANs, plus they’re also the bottom to line up.

2. Client/server network operating systems provide users to access all the resources through a server. In its architecture, all functions and applications are unified under one digital computer which will be utilized by individual client actions to execute them, even in any physical location. Client/server is extremely difficult to put in, while it requires a high amount of technical maintenance. Moreover, it also costs more. Its biggest advantage is that the network is controlled centrally, so any changes may be made easily, while additional technology can even be incorporated.

3} Multiprocessor System

In a multiprocessor system, many processors use a typical physical memory. Computing power is incredibly fast. of these processors work under one OS.

Here are a number of its advantages below :

  • The speed is extremely high because Multiprocessor is employed.
  • If many tasks are processed simultaneously, therefore the system throughput increases here. which implies, what number job processes is worn out a second.
  • during this OS, the task is split into sub-tasks, and every sub-task is given to different processors, especially thanks to this, a task is completed in a very very short time.

4} Distributed Operating System

The only purpose of using Distributed software package is that the globe contains a powerful OS and microprocessors became the bottom, likewise as communication technology has improved plenty. Due to this advancement, now Distributed OS was made, whose price is incredibly cheap and keeps the far-off computers blocked through the network. Which in itself may be a great achievement.

Advantages:

  • All the resources that are far-flung is used easily, which resources don’t remain empty.
  • Processing is quicker with them.
  • The load is a smaller amount on the host machine, because the load gets distributed.

5} Time Sharing Operating System

In this, it slow is provided by the OS to finish each task correctly, so each task may be completed correctly. At the identical time, every user uses one system within which time is given to the CPU. this sort of system is additionally called multitasking system. At the identical time, whatever task is finished in it, it can either be done by single user or it may also be done by multi user. The amount of your time it takes to finish each task is named quantum. At the identical time, only after completing each task, the OS starts the following task again.

Advantages
Let us fathom the benefits of time-sharing software system.

  • In this, the OS is given civil rights to complete each task.
  • It is not a simple task to own duplicasy of software during this. which is up to .
  • CPU idle time is reduced easily during this.

Disadvantages :Let us realize the disadvantages of Operating System.

  • The issue of reliability is seen more during this.
  • In this, the safety and integrity of everything must be taken care of.
  • The issue of information communication could be a common problem during this.
  • Examples of time-sharing operating system are:- Unix

6} Real-Time operating system

This is the foremost Advance OS, which is real-time It means doing e-processing, while leaving the missile, railway ticket booking, satellite, if there’s a delay of even a second all told of those, then this software system doesn’t remain idle the least bit.

These are of two types,

1. Hard Real-Time Operating System: This is the OS, within which period is given to finish the task, the work gets completed within that point.

2. Soft Real-Time: In Soft Real-Time, the punctuality would are a bit less, what happens if a task is running and another task arrives at the identical time, then the new task is given priority first.

What is Client Operating System?

A pc desktop may be a standalone computer processing unit. they’re designed to perform automation tasks for folks. A microcomputer is extremely distinctive as a result of it doesn’t need any networks or external elements to work.

This consumer software package is usually utilized in pc desktops or moveable devices. This software package is usually totally different from centralized servers as a result of it supports only 1 user.

Smartphones and little pc devices use the consumer software package. This software package manages the elements of the device, together with printers, monitors, and cameras. every pc usually contains a specific software package.

These consumer operational systems offer parallel processing power that too at terribly least value. consumer operational Systems embrace Windows®, Linux®, Mac® and Android®.

Each software package is intended to perform some specific operate on specific hardware. This hardware compatibility is that the most primary thought on the premise of that AN software package is chosen for consumer computers.

For example, Windows® is presently the foremost wide used as Client Operating System.

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